F1 - Offspring resulting from the mating of a purebred (straightbred) bull to purebred (straightbred) females of another breed.
fabrication - Breaking the carcass into primal, subprimal, or retail cuts. These cuts may be boned and trimmed of excess fat.
fat thickness - Usually refers to the amount of fat that covers muscles; typically measured at the twelfth and thirteenth rib as inches of fat over the longissimus dorsi muscle (rib eye).
FDA - See Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
feces - Bodily wastes; excretion product from the intestinal tract.
fed cattle - Steers and heifers that have been fed concentrates, usually for 90-120 days in a feedlot or until they reach a desired slaughter weight.
feed additive - Ingredient such as an antibiotic or hormone like substance that is added to a diet to perform a specific role.
feed bunk - Trough or container used to feed cattle.
feed conversion - See feed efficiency.
feed efficiency - (1) Amount of feed required to produce a unit of weight gain or milk. (2) Amount of gain made per unit of feed.
feed markup - Per-ton feed cost charged to the customer by the feedyard for the cattle-feeding services it provides.
feeder - (1) Cattle that need further feeding prior to slaughter. (2) Producer who feeds cattle.
feeder grades - Grouping of feeder cattle to predict the slaughter weight endpoint to a desirable fat-to-lean composition. Frame size and thickness are the two criteria used to determine feeder grade.
feedlot - Enterprise in which cattle are fed grain and other concentrates for usually 90-120 days. Feedlots range in size from less than 100-head capacity to many thousands.
feedyard - Cattle-feeding facility.
femininity - Well-developed secondary female sex characteristics, udder development, and refinement in head and neck.
fertility - Capacity to initiate, sustain, and support reproduction.
fertilization - Process by which a sperm unites with an egg to produce a zygote.
fetus - Late stage of individual development within the uterus. Generally, the new individual is regarded as an embryo during the first half of pregnancy and as a fetus during the last half.
fill - Contents of the digestive tract.
financing - Acquiring control of assets by borrowing money.
finish - (1) Degree of fatness of an animal. (2) Completion of the last feeding phase of slaughter cattle.
finished cattle - Fed cattle whose time in the feedlot is completed and are now ready for slaughter.
finishing ration - Feedlot ration, usually high in energy, that is fed during the latter part of the feeding period.
fitting - Proper feeding, grooming, and handling of an animal, usually to prepare it for the show ring.
fixed cost - Costs incurred whether or not production occurs (e.g., interest, taxes).
flehmen - Pattern of behavior expressed by the bull during sexual activity. The upper lip curls up and the bull initiates the smelling process in the vicinity of the vulva or urine.
flushing - Placing females on a high level of nutrition before breeding to decrease postpartum interval and possibly stimulate an increased conception rate.
FMD - See foot and mouth disease.
FMI - See Food Marketing Institute.
FOB (or fob) - Free on board; buyer pays freight after loading.
follicle - Blisterlike, fluid-filled structure in the ovary that contains the egg.
follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) - Hormone produced and released by the anterior pituitary that stimulates the development of the follicle in the ovary.
Food and Drug Administration (FDA) - U.S. government agency responsible for protecting the public against impure and unsafe foods, drugs, veterinary products, biologics, and other products.
Food Marketing Institute (FMI) - National association of food retailers and wholesalers located in Washington, DC, that conducts programs of research, education, and public affairs for its members.
foot and mouth disease (FMD) - Highly contagious disease affecting many species of livestock including cattle. This disease if of particular concern in that it can lead to loss of export markets.
footrot - Disease of the foot in cattle.
forage - Grazed or harvested herbaceous plants that are utilized by cattle.
forage production - The total amount of dry matter produced per unit of area on an annual basis (e.g., lb/acre/year).
forb - Weedy or broad-leaf plants (unlike grasses) that serve as pasture for animals (e.g., clover, alfalfa).
forward contracting - Future delivery of a specified type and amount of product at a specified price.
founder - Nutritional ailment resulting from overeating. Lameness in front feet with excessive hoof growth usually occurs.
frame score - Score based on visual evaluation of skeletal size or by measuring hip height (from ground to top of hips). This score is related to the slaughter weights at which cattle grade Choice or have comparable amounts of fat cover over the loin eye at the twelfth to thirteenth rib.
frame size - Usually measured by frame score or estimated visually.
freemartin - Female born twin to a bull (approximately 90% of such heifers will never conceive).
FSH - See follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH).
full sibs - Animals having the same sire and dam.
futures market - Electronic market through which buyers and sellers trade contracts on commodities or raw materials. Futures contracts are available for a variety of delivery months. However, delivery of actual products seldom occurs. Futures markets are used as a risk management tool or as a speculative venture.