G

GATT  (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade) - An agreement originally negotiated in Geneva, Switzerland in 1947 among 23 countries, including the U.S., to increase international trade by reducing tariffs and other trade barriers.  The agreement provides a code of conduct for international commerce and a framework for periodic multilateral negotiations on trade liberalization and expansion.

gene - Segment of DNA in the chromosome that codes for a trait and determines how a trait will develop.

gene map - A blueprint of the chromosomes of a species, indicating the relative order of location of genes and DNA markers.

generation interval - Average age of the parents when the offspring are born.

generation turnover - Length of time from one generation of animals to the next generation.

genetic correlation - Correlation between two traits that arises because some of the same genes affect both traits.  See correlation coefficient.

genetic engineering - Changing the characteristics of an animal by altering or rearranging its DNA.  It is an all-embracing term for several techniques:  (1) manipulations at a cellular level (cloning); (2) manipulation of the DNA itself (gene manipulation); (3) changing the DNA sequence through the selection and mating of cattle.

genome - Total number of genes in a species.

genotype - Genetic constitution or makeup of an individual.  For any pair of alleles, three genotypes (e.g., AA, Aa, and aa) are possible.

genotype--environmental interaction - Variation in the relative performance of different genotypes from one environment to another.  For example, the superior cattle (genotypes) for one environment may not be superior for another environment.

gestation - Time from conception until the female gives birth, an average of 285 days in cattle.

goal - Target or desired condition that motivates the decision maker.

gonad - Testis of the male; ovary of the female.

gonadotrophin - Hormone that stimulates the gonads.

grade augmentation - Supplementation of traditional USDA visual carcass grading using objective instrumentation.

grade and yield - Marketing transaction whereby payment is made on the basis of carcass weight and quality grade.

grading up - Continued use of purebred sires of the same breed in a grade herd.

grass tetany - Disease of cattle marked by staggering, convulsions, coma, and frequently death that is caused by a mineral imbalance (magnesium) while grazing lush pasture.

grazier - A person who manages grazing livestock.

grazing cell - A parcel of land subdivided into paddocks and grazed rotationally.

grazing cycle - The length or passage of time between 2 grazing periods in a particular paddock of a grazing unit.  One grazing cycle includes 1 grazing period and 1 rest period.

gross margin - Difference between the revenue and variable production cost for one unit (one acre or one animal) of an enterprise.

growing ration - Usually a high-roughage ration whereby gains of 0.25-2 lb per day are anticipated.

growth - Increase in protein over its loss in the animal body.  Growth occurs by increases in cell numbers, cell size, or both.

grubs - Larvae of the heel fly found on the backs of cattle under the hide.

NCBA is on Capitol Hill...

...taking care of our needs while we are out in the fields
taking care of our animals and our land.

-Tony Turri - California