Glossary of Terms

abomasum - Fourth stomach compartment of cattle that corresponds to the true stomach of monogastric animals.

abortion - Delivery of fetus between time of conception and normal parturition.

abscess - Localized collection of pus in a cavity formed by disintegration of tissues.

accrual method of accounting - Accounting method whereby revenue and expenses are recorded when they are earned or incurred regardless of when the cash is received or paid.

accuracy or ACC (of selection) - Confidence that can be placed in the EPD (expected progeny difference); for example, high (0.70 and above), medium (0.40-0.69), and low (below 0.40).

acetonemia - See ketosis.

acidosis - A high-acid condition in the rumen (pH 5.3-5.7) caused by rapid consumption or overconsumption of readily fermentable feed; may cause digestive disturbance and/or death.

ADG - See average daily gain.

adjusted weaning weight - Weaning weights of calves are adjusted to a standard age (205 days) and age of dam (5-9 years of age).

adjusted yearling weight - Yearling weights of calves are adjusted to a standard age (365 days) by adding (160 times average daily postweaning gain) to the adjusted 205-day weight.

ad lib - See ad libitum.

ad libitum (ad lib) - Free choice; allowing cattle to eat all they want.

afterbirth - Fetal membranes that are expelled after parturition.  See also placenta.

AHIR - See Angus herd improvement records

AI - See artificial insemination.

AI certificates - Certificates issued by some breed associations that must be submitted before AI calves can be registered.

alliance - An organization in the beef industry (horizontal or vertical) designed to improve profitability by improving coordination of beef production, processing, and merchandizing.

American Meat Institute (AMI) - Association of meat-packing and processing companies.

American National Cattlewomen (ANCW) - Organization of women involved in the promotion of beef through education and consumer relations programs.

AMI - See American Meat Institute.

amnion - Fluid-filled membrane located next to the fetus.

ANCW - See American National Cattlewomen.

anestrous - Period of time when the female is not in estrus; the nonbreeding season.

Angus Herd Improvement Records (AHIR) - Performance records program administered by the American Angus Association.

animal unit (AU) - A generalized unit for describing stocking density, stocking rate and carry capacity.  Usually accepted to be a 1,000-lb cow with calf or 1.4 yearling cattle.

annual cow cost - Cost (dollars) to keep a cow for a year.

animal unit month (AUM) - Amount of feed or forage required to maintain one animal unit (e.g., a 1,000-lb cow and calf) for one month.

ante mortem - Before death.

anthelmintic - Drug or chemical agent used to kill or remove internal parasites.

antibiotic - Product produced by living organisms such as yeast that destroys or inhibits the growth of other organisms, especially bacteria.

antibody - Specific protein molecule that is produced in response to a foreign protein (antigen) that has been introduced into the body.

antigen - Foreign substance that, when introdued into the blood or tissues, causes the formation of antibodies.  Antigens may be toxins or native proteins.

appreciation - Increase in the value of a capital asset (e.g., land) due to external influences such as inflation.

arteriosclerosis - Disease resulting in the thickening and hardening of the artery walls.

artificial insemination (AI) - Placing semen into the female reproductive tract (usually the cervix or uterus) by means other than natural service.

artificial vagina - Device used to collect semen from a male while he mounts in a normal manner to copulate.  The bull ejaculates into this device, which simulates the vagina of the female in pressure, temperature, and sensation to the penis.

as fed - Feeding of feeds that contain their normal amount of moisture.

assets - Items of value owned by a beef business or producer.

atherosclerosis - Form of arteriosclerosis involving fatty deposits in the inner walls of the arteries.  See also arteriosclerosis.

atrophy - Shrinking or wasting away of tissue.

auction - Market for cattle through which an auctioneer sells cattle to the highest bidder.

AUM - See animal unit month.

autopsy - Postmortem examination in which the body is dissected to determine cause of death.

average daily gain - Pounds of liveweight gained per day.

NCBA is on Capitol Hill...

...taking care of our needs while we are out in the fields
taking care of our animals and our land.

-Tony Turri - California