Glossary of Terms
abomasum - Fourth stomach compartment of cattle that corresponds to the true stomach of monogastric animals.
abortion - Delivery of fetus between time of conception and normal parturition.
abscess - Localized collection of pus in a cavity formed by disintegration of tissues.
accrual method of accounting - Accounting method whereby revenue and expenses are recorded when they are earned or incurred regardless of when the cash is received or paid.
accuracy or ACC (of selection) - Confidence that can be placed in the EPD (expected progeny difference); for example, high (0.70 and above), medium (0.40-0.69), and low (below 0.40).
acetonemia - See ketosis.
acidosis - A high-acid condition in the rumen (pH 5.3-5.7) caused by rapid consumption or overconsumption of readily fermentable feed; may cause digestive disturbance and/or death.
ADG - See average daily gain.
adjusted weaning weight - Weaning weights of calves are adjusted to a standard age (205 days) and age of dam (5-9 years of age).
adjusted yearling weight - Yearling weights of calves are adjusted to a standard age (365 days) by adding (160 times average daily postweaning gain) to the adjusted 205-day weight.
ad lib - See ad libitum.
ad libitum (ad lib) - Free choice; allowing cattle to eat all they want.
afterbirth - Fetal membranes that are expelled after parturition. See also placenta.
AHIR - See Angus herd improvement records
AI - See artificial insemination.
AI certificates - Certificates issued by some breed associations that must be submitted before AI calves can be registered.
alliance - An organization in the beef industry (horizontal or vertical) designed to improve profitability by improving coordination of beef production, processing, and merchandizing.
American Meat Institute (AMI) - Association of meat-packing and processing companies.
American National Cattlewomen (ANCW) - Organization of women involved in the promotion of beef through education and consumer relations programs.
AMI - See American Meat Institute.
amnion - Fluid-filled membrane located next to the fetus.
ANCW - See American National Cattlewomen.
anestrous - Period of time when the female is not in estrus; the nonbreeding season.
Angus Herd Improvement Records (AHIR) - Performance records program administered by the American Angus Association.
animal unit (AU) - A generalized unit for describing stocking density, stocking rate and carry capacity. Usually accepted to be a 1,000-lb cow with calf or 1.4 yearling cattle.
annual cow cost - Cost (dollars) to keep a cow for a year.
animal unit month (AUM) - Amount of feed or forage required to maintain one animal unit (e.g., a 1,000-lb cow and calf) for one month.
ante mortem - Before death.
anthelmintic - Drug or chemical agent used to kill or remove internal parasites.
antibiotic - Product produced by living organisms such as yeast that destroys or inhibits the growth of other organisms, especially bacteria.
antibody - Specific protein molecule that is produced in response to a foreign protein (antigen) that has been introduced into the body.
antigen - Foreign substance that, when introdued into the blood or tissues, causes the formation of antibodies. Antigens may be toxins or native proteins.
appreciation - Increase in the value of a capital asset (e.g., land) due to external influences such as inflation.
arteriosclerosis - Disease resulting in the thickening and hardening of the artery walls.
artificial insemination (AI) - Placing semen into the female reproductive tract (usually the cervix or uterus) by means other than natural service.
artificial vagina - Device used to collect semen from a male while he mounts in a normal manner to copulate. The bull ejaculates into this device, which simulates the vagina of the female in pressure, temperature, and sensation to the penis.
as fed - Feeding of feeds that contain their normal amount of moisture.
assets - Items of value owned by a beef business or producer.
atherosclerosis - Form of arteriosclerosis involving fatty deposits in the inner walls of the arteries. See also arteriosclerosis.
atrophy - Shrinking or wasting away of tissue.
auction - Market for cattle through which an auctioneer sells cattle to the highest bidder.
AUM - See animal unit month.
autopsy - Postmortem examination in which the body is dissected to determine cause of death.
average daily gain - Pounds of liveweight gained per day.