tariff - A tax imposed on commodity imports by a government. A tariff may be either a fixed charge per unit of product imported (specific tariff) or a fixed percentage of value (ad valorem tariff).
tagging - Usually refers to putting ear tags in the ear.
tandem selection - Selection for one trait for a given period of time followed by selection for a second trait and continuing in this way until all important traits are selected.
TDN - See total digestible nutrients (TDN)
teat - Proturberance of the udder through which milk flows.
terminal crossbreeding - See terminal sires.
terminal market - Large livestock collection center where an independent organization serves as a selling agent for the livestock owner.
terminal sires - Sires used in a crossbreeding system in which all their progeny, both male and female, are marketed. For example, crossbred dams could be bred to sires of a third breed and all calves marketed. Although this system allows maximum heterosis and complementary of breeds, replacement females must come from other herds.
testicle - Male sex gland that produces sperm and testosterone.
testosterone - Male sex hormone that stimulates the accessory sex glands, causes the male sex drive, and results in the development of masculine characteristics.
tie - Depression or dimple in the back of cattle caused by an adhesion of the hide to the backbone.
time management - Manner in which time is utilized to achieve specific goals.
toeing in - Toes of front feet turn in. Also called pigeon toed.
toeing out - Toes of front feet turn out. Also called splay footed.
total digestive nutrients (TDN) - Sum of digestible protein, nitrogen-free extract, fiber, and fat (multiplied by 2.25).
trait ratio - Expression of an animal's performance for a particular trait relative to the herd or contemporary group average. It is usually calculated for most traits as:
transgenic - An organism or animal whose genome includes “foreign” genetic material. Foreign genetic material would be a DNA sequence or gene that does not normally occur in the species of the host organism or animal.
tray-ready beef - Retail cuts that are cut and packaged at the packing plant for retail sales; also referred to as case-ready.
tripe - Edible product from the walls of the ruminant stomach.
twist - Vertical measurement from the top of the rump to the point where the hind legs separate.
type - (1) Physical conformation of an animal. (2) All physical attributes that contribute to the value of an animal for a specific purpose.