tariff - A tax imposed on commodity imports by a government.  A tariff may be either a fixed charge per unit of product imported (specific tariff) or a fixed percentage of value (ad valorem tariff).

tagging - Usually refers to putting ear tags in the ear.

tandem selection - Selection for one trait for a given period of time followed by selection for a second trait and continuing in this way until all important traits are selected.

TDN - See total digestible nutrients (TDN)

teat - Proturberance of the udder through which milk flows.

terminal crossbreeding - See terminal sires.

terminal market - Large livestock collection center where an independent organization serves as a selling agent for the livestock owner.

terminal sires - Sires used in a crossbreeding system in which all their progeny, both male and female, are marketed.  For example, crossbred dams could be bred to sires of a third breed and all calves marketed.  Although this system allows maximum heterosis and complementary of breeds, replacement females must come from other herds.

testicle - Male sex gland that produces sperm and testosterone.

testosterone - Male sex hormone that stimulates the accessory sex glands, causes the male sex drive, and results in the development of masculine characteristics.

tie - Depression or dimple in the back of cattle caused by an adhesion of the hide to the backbone.

time management - Manner in which time is utilized to achieve specific goals.

toeing in - Toes of front feet turn in.  Also called pigeon toed.

toeing out - Toes of front feet turn out.  Also called splay footed.

total digestive nutrients (TDN) - Sum of digestible protein, nitrogen-free extract, fiber, and fat (multiplied by 2.25).

trait ratio - Expression of an animal's performance for a particular trait relative to the herd or contemporary group average.  It is usually calculated for most traits as: 

transgenic - An organism or animal whose genome includes “foreign” genetic material.  Foreign genetic material would be a DNA sequence or gene that does not normally occur in the species of the host organism or animal.

tray-ready beef - Retail cuts that are cut and packaged at the packing plant for retail sales; also referred to as case-ready.

tripe - Edible product from the walls of the ruminant stomach.

twist - Vertical measurement from the top of the rump to the point where the hind legs separate.

type - (1) Physical conformation of an animal.  (2) All physical attributes that contribute to the value of an animal for a specific purpose.

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Mark Spurgin
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