vaccination - The act of administering a vaccine or antigens.

vaccine - Suspension of attenuated or killed microbes or toxins administered to induce active immunity.

vagina - Copulatory portion of the female's reproductive tract.  The vestibule portion of the vagina also serves for passage of urine during urination.  The vagina also serves as a canal through which young pass when born.

value-based marketing - Marketing system based on paying for individual animal differences rather than using average prices.

variable costs - Costs that change with the amount produced.  If the manager decides to cease production, these costs are avoidable.

variance - Variance is a statistic that describes the variation we see in a trait.

variety meats - Edible organ by-products (e.g., liver, heart, tongue, tripe).

vas deferens - Ducts that carry sperm from the epididymis to the urethra.

veal - Meat from very young cattle (under 3 months of age).  Veal typically comes from dairy bull calves.

video image analysis (VIA) - A video image is analyzed via sophisticated computer techniques to estimate factors associated with carcass value.

virus - Ultra-microscopic bundle of genetic material capable of multiplying only in living cells.  Viruses cause a wide range of diseases in plants, animals, and humans, such as rabies and measles.

viscera - Internal organs and glands contained in the thoracic and abdominal cavities.

vitamin - Organic catalyst, or component thereof, that facilitates specific and necessary functions.

volatile fatty acids (VFA) - Group of fatty acids produced from microbial action in the rumen; examples are acetic, propionic, and butyric acids.

vulva - External genitalia of a female mammal.

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